Citronella Oil

Citronella Oil

Cymbopogon winterianus in cultivated field

  • Botanical Name:Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.
  • Family:Gramineae
  • Local Names:Citronella
  • English Name:Citronella (Java)
Category:

Citronella Oil

Cymbopogon winterianus in cultivated field

  • Botanical Name:Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.
  • Family:Gramineae
  • Local Names:Citronella
  • English Name:Citronella (Java)

Plant Description

Citronella is cultivated in Nepal within the altitude of 500-1600m. It is native to Sri Lanka but cultivated in different tropical and sub tropical regions of the globe. It is tall aromatic perennial grass reaching up to 2m. Leaves fragrant, leaf blade linear, tapering to a long membranous, acuminate tip. Inflorescence large and drooping and end in racemose pair supported by the proper sheaths; Racemes are sessile or short; longer pedicelled with tow lower spikelets. Propagation is extensively carried out by slips (vegetative method).

Extraction

Citronella oil is obtained by steam distillation of partially wilted leaves of Cymbopogon winterianus.

Uses

Citronella oil is extensively used in perfumery perparations such as soaps, detergents, cosmetics etc.

Medicinal & Aromatherapy use:

Anti-infectious, antiseptic, antibacterial, antidepressant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, deodorant, diaphoretic fungicidal, insect repellent (mosquito), stomachic, excessive perspiration, oily skin and hair, room deodorizer, rheumatism and arthritic pain

Organoleptic Properties

  • Appearance:Fluid liquid
  • Colour:Light Yellow or Yellowish Brown
  • Aroma:Fresh and sweet, Powerful, citronellal scent

Physico-Chemical Properties

  • Specific gravity:0.870 to 0.95 at 25° C
  • Optical rotation:[-] 5° to 0° at 25° C
  • Refractive index:1.465 to 1.485 at 25° C
  • Acid number:0.5 to 3.5
  • Ester number:20 to 40
  • Ester number after acetylation:250 to 2805
  • Solubility:Soluble in 0.8 to 1.5 vol. of 80% alcohol
  • Total alcohol:80 to 90% (calculated as geraniol)
  • Aldehyde content:21.5 to 35% (Hydroxylamine hydrochoride method)

Active Constituents

Geraniol, citronellol (dominating in the Java oil, about 80%), geranyl acetate, limonene, citronellyl acetate, elemol and camphene are active constituents. Others are citronellal, neral, β-caryophyllene, β-elemene, γ-cadinene and traces of cubenene, calamenene, bourbonene, bisabolene, eugenol, nerol, linalool etc.

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